Nakhon Sawan City – Thailand (Clean Water for Small Cities)
Nakhon Sawan City (NSC) is the second largest city in the north of Thailand with an area of 27.87square kilometers and a population of 86,703 and population density of 3,111 persons per square kilometer. From the geographical aspect, NSC is the origin of Chao Phraya river, which is a merger of four smaller rivers: Ping, Wang, Yom, and Nan. Since NSC is located at the upstream area and adjacent to the country’s main river, it is the only city in the country which has raw water for water supply production all year round. The main policies of the city are as follows: access to good water quality for consumers; protection of water resources; wastewater treatment prior to discharge; construction and operation of a water supply system to cover the city’s area; and acquisition of raw water resources to feed the water supply that meet Thailand and WHO standards.
Water Supply Quality
Results of the water supply quality monitoring of NSC have shown that it meets the national and WHO standards: (1) bacterial characteristics: E. coli bacteria; (2) physical-chemical characteristics: color, turbidity, taste and odor, heavy metals e.g. arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, chloride, etc.; (3) pesticide and related chemicals: DDT, pentachlorophenol, etc.; (4) trihalomethane: chloroform, bromoform, etc.; and (5) radioactive substances.
Results of the effluent monitoring of NSC have shown that it meets the national standard: pH (5.0-9.0), BOD (not exceeding 20 mg./liter), suspended solid (not exceeding 30 mg./liter), oil and grease (not exceeding 5 mg./liter), total nitrogen (not exceeding 20 mg.N/liter), total phosphorus (not exceeding 5 mg.P/liter).
On the management of water system for consumption, NSC is the only city in Thailand with water supply service covering the whole area of the city and approximately 2,000 households outside NSC. All types of buildings and construction: residential, governmental offices, academic institutes, religious institutes, shopping malls, business buildings etc can connect to the city’s water supply system. As the water resource for water supply production, Ping river with 15-20 million cubic meters per day flow rate and also from Bhumibol dam and groundwater could guarantee that the raw water using for water supply production is available even in dry season.
The highlight point of the water supply is that quality is tested at the beginning of the process. Data is used to guide the amount of chemical additives at precise level. This results in chemical substance cost reduction and less chemical residuals in the water for the safety of the consumers. The quality of the water supply in the system is randomly checked at the beginning (water treatment plant), in the middle (city area), and at the end (drinking water service points). The quality of the city’s water treatment meets the national standard which is equivalent to the standard of the World Health Organization, and is certified by the Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, according to TIS 257-2549 standard since 2000 until present. Sediment sludge from the water treatment process can be discharged into the river without harming aquatic lives, while fishes are used as indicators. When considering the sustainability of the operation, it can be seen that NSC is capable of managing the expense and income of water supply service. The fact that the resulting profit is used in other aspects of local management is the evidence of the operation’s sustainability.
For the operation regarding wastewater, the mayor of NSC gives high priority on importance of the environment and supported the budget for providing sewerage system coverage all of the city-wide. The city also has issued a regulation which requires every building blueprints to include the wastewater discharge pipelines and their connections to the public sewerage system together with an installation of grease trap units in every buildings. Such regulation ensures the collection of wastewater everywhere in the urban area into the city’s sewerage system. Moreover, NSC is the first city of Thailand to succeed in the wastewater management and wastewater treatment using Modified Sequencing Batch Reactor (MSBR). The 5-step treatment results in the city’s effluent quality that meets corresponding standards. Sludge from wastewater treatment, is tested by the Office of Land Development and found to have high nutrient content with no chemical residuals, making it a great soil conditioner and plant fertilizer. This wastewater treatment plant has become a learning center for many organizations, domestic and international.
In regards to water conservation education programs, NSC has pioneered appropriate water usage and training at all levels. The city created a curriculum on locally-appropriate water conservation and manual of “Environment in School”. It has extended the operation based on the experience to all sectors such as a project which uses hyacinth and grass as grease traps in schools and households, wastewater treatment using vetiver grass, and simple water filtration equipment invention. The extensive operations of NSC and the cooperation of every sectors has made NSC the city with sustainable clean water.
Davao City – Philippines (Clean Land for Big Cities)
Davao City is located in the southeastern part of Mindanao, lying in the grid squares of 6 58′ to 7 34′ N latitude, and 125 14′ to 125 40′ E longitude. It is bounded on the north by Davao Province; on the east partly by Davao Province and Davao Gulf; on the south by Davao del Sur; and on the west by North Cotabato. Davao City Proper is approximately 946 aerial kilometers or 588 statute miles, southeast of Manila. Because of its strategic location, the City was developed as a regional trade center for Southern Mindanao; international trade center to the Southern Pacific; and Southern Gateway more particularly to and from the neighboring countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Australia, among others. Davao City, reputedly the 2nd largest city in the world, has an area of 244,000 hectares, or 8 per cent of the land area of Southern Mindanao Region or Region XI. It is divided into 3 congressional districts and furthermore divided into 11 administrative districts. Poblacion and Talomo Districts comprised District I, meanwhile District II is composed of the following districts, namely: Agdao, Buhangin, Bunawan and Paquibato, District III includes Toril, Tugbok, Calinan, Baguio and Marilog. Davao City population has reached to 1,537,981 in 2013 with a population density of 643 persons per square kilometer for which 70% live mostly in the urban areas.
Davao City has already complied with the provisions of national law, particularly, the Republic Act No. 9003, otherwise known as the “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000”. The formulation and implementation of the 10-year Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) of Davao City is clear evidence that the City has strong drive in complying with the national standards as stipulated in R.A. 9003. The 10-year ISWMP is also adapted into an ordinance, known as the City Ordinance No. 0361-10, or the “Davao City Ecological Solid Waste Management Ordinance of 2009” – an ordinance providing for an ecological solid waste management, prohibiting certain acts, providing penalties for violations and for other purposes.
Some of the salient provisions of the ordinance are, mandatory segregation at source, establishment of city collection point, barangay composting and MRF, City composting facility and sanitary landfill, organization of SWM enforcers and inclusion of SWM into the school curricula which presently is already established and implemented in the City.
Aside from institutionalizing the solid waste management, the City has also regular greening programs in consonance to the National Greening Program (NGP) of President Benigno S. Aquino III (Executive Order No. 26 issued on Feb. 24, 2011) – a massive forest rehabilitation program of the government that seek to grow 1.5 billion trees in 1.5 million hectares nationwide within a period of six years, from 2011 to 2016 and other laws relevant to reforestation. The City programs include regular planting of ornamental plants, shrubs and trees to parks, playgrounds, islands, monuments and cultural heritage sites. Moreover, approximately, 100,000 to 200,000 seedlings are planted annually in different areas, such as, coastal, roadside, riverbank, watershed and upland.
In the past decade, Davao City is a consistent nominee to the top five cleanest and greenest cities in the highly-urbanized city category in the Philippines and even won as the Cleanest and Greenest City way back in 1999. The clean image of the City is sustained and maintained through its 24-hour continued solid waste collection in every streets and corners of national highways, major thoroughfares, city streets and barangay roads. The collection operation is accompanied with monitoring personnel and back-up hauler to cater uncollected collection points ensuring the efficiency of the collection system. After collection, street sweepers take charge of the litters left behind on collection points and the cleanliness of major thoroughfares of the City. With its 3-shift operation, observant passersby would easily notice the litter-free streets especially on the City’s early morning rush. “Pulot personnel” are also dispatched to pick-up litters left unmanaged. Crucial to the success in the implementation are consistently implemented, to barangays, establishments and institutions to encourage cooperation to the City’s advocacy. Solid Waste Management Enforcers, on the other hand, ensures violators are apprehended and penalized by virtue of C.O. No. 0361-10.
As the plane slowly descends towards the run-way, passengers commonly observe the vegetative characteristic of the City pointing from rural to urban areas, including the downtown and coastal areas. The green perspective of Davao is endured and preserved through a collaborative effort between the City and National Government and stakeholders, such as, barangays, schools, tri-medias, NGOs, civic organizations, religious institutions and all business establishments by initiating regular tree planting activities in the watershed and upland areas, coastlines, riverbanks and roadsides. Parks, playgrounds, monuments and islands maintenance and enhancement attached in the regular programs and activities, withstand the green color of the City.
The air quality of the City is within the quality standards as stated in the previous report of Environmental Management Bureau – Department of Environment and Natural Resources (EMB-DENR) Regional Office Region – XI and it is being maintained through regular monitoring of agricultural, industrial and other establishments. The implementation of City Ordinance No. 0361-10, or the “Anti Smoke Belching Ordinance of Davao City”, mitigates and eventually eradicates the emission of air pollutants from smoke belching motor vehicles flying within the territorial jurisdiction of the City. Water quality is also monitored by simply conducting water sampling analysis to the designated water sampling stations located within the Davao River and its tributaries.
Awards & Recognitions:
- One of the 20 Most Livable Cities in Asia
- The Philippine’s Most Livable City (Asiaweek survey in year 1999 – Davao garnered 56 points and ranked 18th)
- One of Only Three Areas in World to have the Integrated Emergency Response System 911
- 1st Place in 2004 Cleanest and Greenest Highly-Urbanized City in the Philippines, and 2nd Place in 2001 to 2003
- Davao City was awarded the Cleanest and Greenest City in 1999 for its Clean and Green Program
- Most Child-Friendly City in the Philippines in 1988 and 1999 due to its local government’s programs and initiatives directly benefiting the children
- Davao City recognized as the Most Competitive City to Do Business in the Philippines by the Asian Institute of Management (AIM) Policy Center and the Department of Trade and Industry
- The Gender Mainstreaming Program of the Davao City Government chosen as one of the Top 10 Most Outstanding Programs in the Galing Pook Awards in 2004
- National Commission on the Rights for Women (NCRFW) Awarded Davao City for Gender Responsive Local Governance in 2005
- Davao City in the “Hall of Fame” winner in “Best Peace and Order Council” in Region XI
- Davao City proclaimed “Best City to Implement a Food Fortification Program” in Region XI in the Neophyte on Food Fortification Program (R.A. 8976) of the Department of Health
- Davao declared as Region XI’s pride for successful implementation of the Food Fortification Program by the Nutrition Division of the City Health Office. It was also chosen as the Best City – The “Melting Pot of the Philippines” – the Food Fortification Program Implementor in Region XI
- Davao City Police Office (DCPO) recognized as the Best City Police Office nationwide
- Most Outstanding Local Government Unit in the 2005 Regional Literacy Awards, and 2nd Place in the 2005 National Literacy Awards
- National Nutrition Council of the Department of Agriculture awarded Davao City the “Green Banner” in recognition of the City Nutrition Committee’s exemplary performance in managing the nutrition program of the city
- Davao City received its 14th consecutive award having the country’s Best City Library within the administration of the City Government, making it the “Most Outstanding City Library in the Philippines”
- Davao City recognized the City Government of Davao for its invaluable support and cooperation towards the tax collection endeavor of this revenue region by ranking “1st in the OVERALL Tax Payments”
- Davao City chosen “Destination of the Year” by the Kalakbay Awards in 1997
- Most Outstanding Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines and in the Asia Pacific Region
- Most Outstanding KBP Chapter in the Philippines
- Cleanest Air in the World – Member of the Clean Cities Coalition
- Davao City has won the National Literacy Awards 2013 Hall of Fame under the urbanized city category
Roi-et – Thailand (Clean Land for Small Cities)
Roi-et City is located at the northeastern part of Thailand with an area of 11.63 square kilometers and a population of 56,100 and population density of 4,824 persons per square kilometer. The main policies of the city are first, establishing suitable solid waste management, which involves collection, transfer, and sanitary disposal as well as reduction of solid waste creation from communities and fostering responsible reuse. Secondly, promotion of quality of life with public education on sustainable development. Thirdly, management of green areas and green space access.
Roi-et’s clean and green land programs are operated in accordance with the national policy which emphasizes on integrated management, waste minimization by 3Rs. For green areas, the existing ratio of green area is 5.05 square meters per capita which is according to the national criteria.
The solid waste management of Roi-et City takes into account the cleanliness from the beginning until the end of the process. Initially “No-Waste-Bin Streets” are designated, places and times for collections are specified utilizing GIS routing control. For the organic waste from markets, it is collected and converted into fertilizer and energy. After collection, transportation of waste to controlled sites outside the city is by fully modern trucks: side-opening, tail-dumping trucks, hydraulic compaction trucks, and container trucks.
As Roi-et City set up a goal to move towards “Zero Waste”, the waste separation at sources is underlined with the development of “Zero Waste” recycling programs and special projects have been initiated including the city buys recycled waste from communities at market prices, recycle banks, innovation contests, second-hand markets, and production of EM and bio-gas from organic waste. This results in many recycle shops throughout the city, private waste recycling companies and also small industries who produced raw material from recyclable waste to the plastic pellet factories. Learning centers have been established to educate communities, schools and the public on separation and making use of solid waste in order to increase the value of solid waste.
At present, equipment appropriated to Roi-et was created in order that the solid waste from the landfill can be sorted and handed over to the private sector for utilization. These include sorting of plastic material for oil production; sorting of fabric waste, hard plastic waste, and small plastic waste for production of fuel for electricity generation; sorting of bricks and cement debris for road construction materials; and sorting of wood and yard wastes for producing pellet fuel which is a high heating value alternative energy source.
For the green area perspective, Roi-et city underlines the importance of increasing urban green area. Currently there are 3.49 square meters of green area, which is 30% of the total area and is in compliance with the city master plan. There are two major public parks in the centre of the city which are parts of local people daily life and also green areas with big trees in the governmental and academic places, religious places and in the communities. The city has put an utmost effort in increasing green areas by re-locating the illegal dwellers and reclaiming the area to be an open green space for the public. The city has also provided an area for a pilot organic farming using the soil obtained from the solid waste sorting to produce organic fertilizer and planting soil as it could motivate the community to continue the solid waste management practices. Therefore, it can be concluded that the city’s operations regarding “clean and green land” have been impressively successful. It has received the first prize award in the National Solid Waste Recycle Bank Contest: primary school level (Wat Pa Re Rai School) from Her Royal Highness Princess in 2008.