For the second time, the ASEAN Environment Ministers presented the prestigious ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable Cities (ESC) Award as a way of recognizing exemplary initiatives to keep ASEAN cities clean, green, and livable even as they continue to grow as centers of economic and industrial activity.
This event also marks the first presentation of Certificates of Recognition to six cities in ASEAN which were selected on a competitive basis. Each Certificate recognizes efforts made by small cities (20,000 – 750,000 people) and big cities (750,000 – 1.5 million people) in the categories of Clean Air, Clean Land and Clean Water respectively.
The ASEAN ESC Award was established in 2008 by the ASEAN Working Group on Environmentally Sustainable Cities and endorsed by the ASEAN Environment Ministers. Supported by the Hanns Seidel Foundation, the ASEAN ESC Award programme serves as an incentive for cities in ASEAN to promote environmentally sustainable practices, to monitor and evaluate progress towards environmental sustainability in ASEAN cities, promote education and awareness to ASEAN city communities on the importance of ensuring the environmental integrity with economic and social development objectives of the cities, encourage innovation and best practices, encourage public participation in city programmes and awards process, build capacity and recognise efforts to improve, and encourage partnership between public authorities, private sector and non-governmental organizations.
The nominated cities were announced in a prestigious awards ceremony attended by the Deputy Secretary-General of ASEAN for the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Department, H.E. Dato’ Misran Karmain, Minister of Environment, Indonesia, H.E Mr. Berth Kambuaya, ASEAN Environment Senior Officials, and ASEAN Mayors and Officials of the nominated cities at the Laguna Nusa Dua Bali, on 23 November 2011.
Recipients of ASEAN ESC Award 2011
Rimba National Housing Scheme
The Rimba National Housing Schemeis located 14 kilometres from the capital city and covers an area of 445 hectares with a population of about 20,000 people. The residents in the Housing Scheme are given the opportunity to live and enjoy modern standards of accommodation in a pleasant and convenient environment while at the same time retain their traditional Brunei Darussalam values and culture. It is the aim of the Government of Brunei Darussalam to provide quality housing for the people ina conducive environment. The development of the scheme is harmonised with the country’s surroundings without damaging the quality of landscape, environment and ecosystem.
The Rimba National Housing Scheme is provided with ample public amenities, facilities and utilities. The design of proper road access to the area and to each individual house with pedestrian pathways has made the area conveniently accessible. The extensive network of drainage system and a retention pond have created a sense of order to the scheme. With Brunei’s seasonal heavy rain, these facilities have proved effective in preventing floods.
Within the context of clean land, clean water and clean air, the scheme enjoys green and clean surroundings. The scheme is provided with a community waste collection centre in designated areas and a building to house collection services. On clean water, the scheme also highlights the water supply infrastructure: water pipeline connects to each individual house. The quality of water supplied to the scheme area meetsthe World Health Organization (WHO) International Water Quality Standards, through water filtration system. Meanwhile, the air quality monitoring station that is currently under construction is due to be completed in November 2011. The station will monitor the air quality in the surrounding areas.
Other amenities include primary and secondary schools, mosque, fire station, health centre, community centre, retail outlets and children’s playground area.
25 years since its development, the Rimba National Housing Scheme is not just merely an aesthetic showpiece, but it is a reflection of the government’s effort in elevating the standard of living of the citizens and the continuous sustainable development of Brunei Darussalam, “The Abode of Peace”.
Phnom Penh has been an urban area since 1443 and built its infrastructure as a city during the French Colonial Regime. Before 1970, the city of Phnom Penh was acknowledged as the pearl of Indochina. Unfortunately, between 1970 and 1975, Phnom Penh was devastated by civil war.
Phnom Penh is the Capital of the Kingdom of Cambodia, located in Southeast Asia and situated on the confluence of four rivers: the Upper Mekong, Lower Mekong, the Tonle Sap and the Bassac River. Phnom Penh is geographically situated in the flat pan area; as a result, the city is surrounded by dams which prevent it from flooding. Soil has been excavated to fill the low-lying areas for building roads and houses.
Currently, Phnom Penh stretches over 678 km2, has a permanent population of 1.5 million, and serves the non- permanent population of about 500,000 people who commute daily to the city.
Urban Environmental Status
Air – Phnom Penh has small streets, and two–way traffic causes traffic congestion and accidents from time to time. Many streets are also crowded and not yet asphalted. Moreover, improvements in living standard and technology enable people to afford buying vehicles and machineries, particularly imported used cars that became the source of the city’s air pollution.
In solving the traffic congestion and air pollution, the city has built overpass at several crowded junctions, which is proven as a successful strategy. Parallel with infrastructure rehabilitation, green space improvement is among the key factors to reduce air pollution by planting trees along the sidewalks.
Water – Phnom Penh lacksclean water throughout the city. The city’s water system had not been maintained during the war. In some areas, water pipes were obstructed and deteriorated, causing leaks and allowing intrusion of wastewater and contamination into the system. Similarly, the sewage system spills out wastewater whenever it rains.
Currently, clean water has been produced and provided to 90% of the city area with sustainability objective of less consumption=cheap, more consumption=expensive. Clean water quality has been recognized by an award from the World Bank.
To mitigate the floods, some of the damaged and small size pipes have been replaced and converted to an open canal system through Japanese assistance.
Solid waste continues to increase and used to be disposed at an open dumpsite without any sorting. However, new controlled landfill has been practised since 2009. And to separate household wastes from hazardous wastes, in 2010, the city launched the Penalty and Education program which is a waste separation program that is implemented at markets all around the city. Biodegradable waste has also been used to produce biogas and compost fertilizers as efforts in reducing the solid waste.
Phnom Penh strives to put its best effort to achieve “clean air, clean water and clean land”, and implements various priority projects for improvement of its people’s well-being and a legacy for the future generations.
The City of Surabaya is the second largest city after the capital city of Jakarta. It has approximately 3 million people and has a vision as a services and trade city that is intelligent, humane, dignified and environmentally sound. As a trade and services based metropolitan city, Surabaya relies on the availability of adequate infrastructure and comfortable livelihood for its citizens.
The City of Surabaya is equipped with various facilities for interaction of the people interaction facilities, especially green open space facilities such as parks,PantaiTimur Surabaya(East Coast of Surabaya) as mangrove conservation area, and pedestrian paths. Green open space available in the city of Surabaya has reached 20.2% of the city area,in addition to plus the city reforestation program conducted independently by the community through the “Green and Clean” programme. Various activities related to the environment with active community participation, such as waste management and reforestation, helped shape a healthy urban environment. Peoples’ awareness to participate in maintaining the environment gives a positive impact for the development of the urban environment. Surabaya grows not just physically, but also ecologically, and that’s why the city of Surabaya is known as a beautiful, healthy, safe and comfortable city.
To extend the life span of the landfill, the Surabaya City Government implements a policy of reducing waste from its source through the 3R concept (Reduce, Recycle, Reuse).
The 3R in Surabaya is implemented through Independent Community-Based Waste Management with 3 basic concepts, reduce waste at its source; waste segregation; and waste processing. Organic waste is processed into compost by household composter such as barrel composter, Takakura Baskets, etc. while the inorganic waste is sold to scavengers or made into recycled materials. Activities undertaken for the Independent Community-Based Solid Waste Management include:
- establishment of environmental cadres;
- assisting residents in cooperation with NGOs;
- distribution of barrel composter, Takakura Basket, and trash cart; and
- policy enforcement. Community-Based Solid Waste Management has been implemented in 2774 regions scattered in the city of
Surabaya and was recognized by awarding the community with titles such as Green and Clean, MerdekadariSampah (Free from Garbage), Eco School, as well as Surabaya Green Office. Composting program and waste banks implementation are also done to reduce the amount of waste from its source. Surabaya currently has 16 composting centres to process waste from market waste, household waste, and road and parks maintenance. There are five waste banks managed by the residents, namely Bank SampahMandiri, Bank SampahRukunKarya, Bank SampahKelurahanJeruk, Bank SampahKelurahanGading, and Bank SampahKelurahanBulak Banteng. Seeing the success of the waste bank operation, subsequently Surabaya City Government is planning to build new waste banks in two locations: Bratang and Keputih which are undertaken as the CSR initiative of the National Gas Company.
Sanitation methods in the city of Surabaya are conducted with on-site and off-site system. In residential areas, it is done through Community Based Sanitation (SANIMAS), in which people create a communal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) assisted by the government, among others, at several flats and health facilities as well as Benowo landfill. Some neighbourhoods in the city of Surabaya also have its own communal plant (WWTP). As for sludge processing, the city of Surabaya has faecal waste processing installation (IPLT) in Keputih.
Healthy Air Quality Control
The City of Surabaya has an automatic air quality monitoring system (AQMS) conducted continuously for 24 hours daily and non-automatic air quality monitoring system, conducted once every 6 months. The measurement results of AQMS are transmitted electronically to the Regional Air Quality Monitoring Centre at the Environmental Agency’s office in Surabaya.
Some of the activities undertaken to reduce levels of air pollution includes:
- implementation of traffic restriction zone policy and restrictions for old vehicles to control traffic congestion;
- development and improvement of mass-based public transport;
- implementation of Car Free Day;
- implementation of the exhaust emissions test;
- greening throughout the city of Surabaya; and
- air quality monitoring for emissions in the industrial area.
In its thousand-year history, Xamneua has been known as a city founded in a few hectares of north-eastern valley between the mountains of untouched forests, surrounded by the crystal clear spring water that formed the main river system and supplies almost all necessities for living. The stone and metal artifacts evidenced the long settlement in the area and although the brutality of the ancient and modern wars have disturbed the peaceful way of life of the people and its surroundings, the city today proudlystands in the middle of the natural beauty and is a home to more than 16,000 people who are striving to transform their living space into a clean, green, livable and attractive city and to be a pristine tourist destination of the country’s north.
To ensure that the people’s living conditions are in harmony with environmental protection and in compliance with the national poverty reduction strategy and millennium development goals, the town is planning to 1) increase the green and recreational areas to 30% by 2012, 2) increase the forest coverage ratio in the provincial area by up to 70% by 2020, 3) ensure pollution-free natural water ways by the year 2015, 4) prepare conditions for full reuse and recycling of waste by the year 2020, and 5) maintain the air quality within the national standards and limit the emission of greenhouse gases from all sources.
To achieve those targets the following actions are planned for implementation:
- Identify the types and species of plants (trees, bushes, flowers and grass) that meet functional and climatic conditions of the town and launch a pilot demonstrative project in increasing the green area of the town by the end of 2011;
- Secure the budget for town greenery and forest expansion in the provincial financial plan for approval by the National Assembly on yearly basis;
- Make sure that by 2012 all effluents from households or public premises and service stations are treated in a treatment facility, household or community, to meet the required standard before discharging into the natural water ways;
- Conduct a feasibility study and propose a sewerage system combined with a waste treatment plan in the town by 2015;
- Introduce the concept of reuse and recycling (segregation and composting) of waste to the local community by the end of 2011;
- Set up recycling centers in town and encourage the private sector involvement in the transport and sales of recyclable materials by the end of 2011;
- Install air monitoring station in town by 2015;
- From 2012 conduct periodic checking of vehicle emission level on the street;
- improve the quality of public transport, and
- Introduce urban planning and development scheme taking into account energy efficiency and reduction of emission from 2011 onward.
In 2010, through several years of technical and capacity building assistance from the central governmentand based on 16 performance indicators measuring waste reduction and collection services, waste water management and sanitation, land use planning and the town’s capacity in setting development actions and strategies, Xamneua was evaluated and recognized as the top-ranked town for ‘Environmentally Sustainable City’ in Lao PDR. In 2011, under ASEAN-Japan cooperation scheme, Xamneua launched the ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Project, which is aimed at building the town’s capacity in effective urban service delivery and land use planning, as well as promoting people’s participation in maintaining the quality of urban environment. The main activities in the project will focus on transfer of knowledge through workshops, pilot and demonstrative mini projects, and exchange of best practices among cities in the country.
As a step forward to the environmentally sustainable city, the town has embraced four concepts of development philosophy that consist of the following:
1) Clean your house and your neighborhoods;
2) Cut down on unnecessary consumption of energy, water and goods;
3) Do not discharge untreated waste water directly into natural waterways; and
4) Ensure that there are always flowers, trees, grass or other plants in your courtyard and in your community’s living space.
PUTRAJAYA: FROM CITY IN A GARDEN TO GREEN, LOW CARBON CITY.
The development of Putrajaya, Malaysia’s new Federal Government Administrative Centre, is a testimony of the nation’s commitment towards creating a sustainable future for Malaysia’s growth as a nation as well as seen as exemplary in the global agenda of combating climate change.
Putrajaya, planned to be developed based on two underlying concepts, a city in the garden and an intelligent city, aims at achieving balanced and sustainable development – environmentally, socially, and economically.
Sustainability is clearly evident in the formulation of the Putrajaya Master Plan. The master plan incorporates integrated land use planning and urban design, environmental sustainability, comprehensive provision of infrastructure and utility supported by multi-modal transportation network.
At present, sustainability is clearly evident in Putrajaya in which clean air is ever present. Locally, monitoring of air pollution is conducted on a regular basis and its sources are acted upon promptly.
The man-made Putrajaya Lake, created to bring in nature into the city, together with the man-made wetlands, functioning synergistically to filter water before entering the lake system, is a clear example of the manifestation of clean water of the lake, at times achieving standards above the set target for water quality.
Lake water quality is stringently monitored, thus ensuring the lake utilisation for active recreational and water sports activities as well as ensuring sustainable alternative potable water sources, if the need arises in the future.
Clean land is achieved through integrated city planning and management. A large proportion of the city area is permanently designated for green parks and open spaces, providing the opportunity for people to reconnect with nature apart from acting as a green lung and carbon sink for the city.
Putrajaya is also exemplary nationwide in its waste management and city area cleanliness.
Going forward, Putrajaya has carried out a CO2 emission baseline study for the city prior to preparing a Green City Action Plan for the city, towards the creation of a greener, low carbon society. Community involvement through Local Agenda 21 programmes are actively pursued towards achieving this aim.
Through these relentless efforts, the government’s aspiration for Putrajaya to be Malaysia’s pioneer green city will become a reality by 2025.
Pyin Oo Lwin
PyinOoLwin, known as Flower City, is situated in Mandalay Region in the middle part of Myanmar. It is surrounded by mountain ranges at 3,538feet above sea level. The population of the city is about 200,000 people. The land area of the city is 488,794 acres and it enjoys tropical monsoon climate. Average temperature is about 30°C and annual rainfall is about 9.6”. Local and foreign visitors come to PyinOoLwin for its nice weather, beautiful landscape and attractive places such as Botanical Garden, Water Falls, Pagodas and some historical monuments.
The city of PyinOoLwin is endowed with a lot of natural resources such as fertile land for agriculture; forest conservation areas; places for water resource etc. There are 11 forest conservation areas and the total forest area is about 215,084 acres. Local people of PyinOoLwin mainly rely on the economic and social sectors including agriculture, industries, transport, tourism, and communication for their livelihood.
PyinOoLwin Township Development Committee is mainly responsible for the collection of waste, drainage, water supply and recreation activities. The workers of the Committee collect waste from households, markets, hospitals and other places and dispose off at a place four miles away from the city.
To meet the water demand of the city, there are three rain water collection ponds, and the Township Development Committee allows some private companies to process the water for drinking water purification.
The ambient air quality of PyinOoLwin is considered ideal for public health. Moderate population density, low level of traffic, low frequency of forest fire, large forest areas and a location far away from the industries are supportive of the good ambient air quality. According to the air quality pilot survey done in February 2011, PM10 concentration for 24 hraverage almostmeets the WHO standard.
Regarding the biodiversity conservation, a number of plants and animal species can be found in the Botanical Garden of PyinOoLwin. Some old buildings including Purcel Tower and Candacraig Hotel are also attractive places for tourists. Therefore, people enjoy satisfactorily clean land, clean water and clean air by visiting to the City of PyinOoLwin.
THE CITY IN A FOREST
A city richly endowed with natural resources, Puerto Princesa possesses an array of diverse ecosystems with healthy biodiversity from ridge to reef, making the city a tropical paradise in this part of the world.
Strategically located in the central portion of the island province of Palawan in southwestern Philippines, Puerto Princesa is typhoon-free and far from major earthquake fault lines.
Puerto Princesa is considered the largest city in the country covering a total land area of 253,982 hectares with a coastline of 416 kilometers abounding with marine life. Having a forest cover of 161,209 hectares which is believed to be the biggest in any city in the country, Puerto Princesa is aptly referred to as the “Princess City in the Last Frontier”.
The City is a home to a wide range of life-giving natural tourist attractions such as mountains, lush virgin forests, endemic flora and fauna, exotic islands, unspoiled beaches, world-class diving sites, waterfalls, hot springs, and the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, a World Heritage Site, where the famous 8.2 km underground river flows – the longest underground river in Asia and second longest in the world – is located. It is an official nominee and finalist to the search for the New Seven Wonders of Nature. The Underground River gained further recognition with the recent discovery of a 20-million-year-old “Sirenia” (sea cow) fossil found in the inner cavity by a team of Italian scientists from the University of Florence. The 22,202-hectare Park is a unique tourist attraction, a total destination offering high quality of experience to tourists through a wide range of nature, adventure, and recreational activities. The karst limestone ridges around Mt. St. Paul, the diverse ecosystem, the rare flora and fauna and its fine beaches indeed make Puerto Princesalive up to its reputation as the Princess of the Philippine Islands.
Puerto Princesa is the thriving center for trade and commerce, communication, education and government service, being the capital and lone city for the 23 municipalities of the province. Yet in the pursuit of socio economic development, the city is consistent with its thrust on preserving its environmental integrity. Its economy is centered on tourism and agriculture. It has a community-based sustainable tourism platform that cares for the environment, develops and uplifts the people’s way of life, provides for economic development and strengthens local governance.
Puerto Princesa is also a Hall of Fame Awardee for being the cleanest and greenest city in the Philippines. Consistent with its environmental programs and advocacies, its local government initiated massive tree planting programs such as the “Pista Y and Cagueban” (Feast of the Forest) and the Love Affair with Nature program, which paved the way for the reforestation of its watersheds and coastal mangrove areas.
Furthermore, the city has been recognized by the Manila Observatory as the first Carbon Neutral (technically carbon negative) city in the Philippines. Puerto Princesa emits only 206 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (kt CO2-eq) compared to the 1,662 kt CO2-eq of greenhouse gases it sequesters from the atmosphere.
Puerto Princesa is a home to the culturally rich, lively and diverse community. There is respect for individual worth, tolerance of differences between people and collective responsibility for a shared vision of becoming a Model City in Sustainable Development. People have high regard for the environment, and recognize the consequences of previous environmental neglect and lack of respect for natural resources. The city in itself, its people, the beautiful beaches, the pristine waters and mountain views attest that socio-economic development can go hand-in-hand with environmental protection and rehabilitation
South West Community Development Council (CDC)
The South West Community Development Council (CDC) occupies about one third of Singapore’s land mass and houses close to 800,000 residents. It provides local administration for the South West district and promotes bonding and social cohesion among its residents.
Led by its Mayor, Dr Amy Khor, the South West CDC has produced a stellar report card for its environmental efforts. In 2008, it received the inaugural ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award. Other prestigious local wins include the Singapore’s OK Best Community Award for three consecutive years (2003, 2004 & 2005), Singapore Green Plan 2012 Award (Organisation) in 2005, Clean & Green Singapore Best Community Award for four consecutive years (2007, 2008, 2009 & 2010) and the President’s Award for the Environment in 2008. It also received the Eco Office Label certification for two consecutive terms in 2008 and 2010.
Since 2009, it has steered the district towards developing social and environmental sustainability with the ECo (Environment &Community) Plan South West. Themed “Tomorrow Starts Today”, the ten-year blueprint consists of environment-focused goals (Cool, Green and Clean), community-specific goals (Caring and Proactive) and action plans for its stakeholders.
ECo Goal 1: Cool Community
Reducing Energy Consumption and Promoting Resource Conservation
In 2010, the South West Carbon Buster Roadmap was launched. Residents adopted simple environmentally- friendly practices and lifestyle changes reducing more than 15,000 tonnes of carbon emission.
The Chevron-South West Energy Quest, launched in 2010, promoted the message of sustainability to schools. 47 schools in the district reduced energy consumption and saved about 300,000 kilowatt hours of electricity in six months.
This year, the “Trash-for-Groceries” recycling programme collected a staggering 46 tonnes of used paper, 20.5 tonnes of old clothing, 8,800 plastic bottles and 4,000 metal cans, raising $180,000 for about 1,500 needy residents.
ECo Goal 2: Green Community
Nurturing and Appreciating Nature
Launched in 2009, 1,000,000 Native Plants @ South West, is a 10-year community gardening initiative to reinstate the natural heritage and fight climate change. Through public, private and people efforts, the programme has rooted 58 gardens with 240,000 plants and about 130,000 online pledges.
Since 2010, the South West CDC’s ECo Living @ South West programme on water conservation and waste recycling reached out to more than 400 households. The South West CDC also collaborated with the relevant authorities to promote water conservation and self-help. To date 2,000 needy households have installed water- saving devices in their homes.
ECo Goal 3: Clean Community
Maintaining Public Health and A Clean & Litter-Free Environment
The “My Environment Shines” programme continues to encourage and promote the public health goals of “A Litter-Free Environment”, “Clean, Dry and Sparkling Toilets” and “A Community That Does Not Spread Bugs”. Since 2010, Women ECo Champions have reached out to about 500 pre-schoolers on the message of “A Litter- Free Environment”. Through the Operation Mozzie-Free @ South West programme in 2010, more than 1,800 trained “dengue mobsters” have conducted house visits to reinforce awareness on dengue prevention measures.
ECo Goal 4: Caring Community
Helping and Supporting One Another
Practising good environmental habits not only saves the environment but could also help the needy. In 2008, the South West CDC facilitated the set-up of WEworkz (Women Enterprise Workz) Co-operative Ltd to equip women from low-income families with skills to earn some income. WEworkz produced 13,300 bags made from recycled banners in 2009.
ECo Goal 5: Proactive Community
Being Active Citizens
The South West – SMRT ECo Fund, launched in 2011, encourages the community to take ownership of the environment by organising and driving green initiatives. This nurtures environmental champions and an active citizenry.
The South West CDC has been conscientiously promoting environmental awareness and practices and blending these efforts with programmes to help the needy and engage the community. It continues to rally the community to develop a sustainable lifestyle and build a home that is clean, green and healthy for all.
Phuket is one of the world class tourist destinations with the slogan of the Pearl of Andaman Sea, a southern paradise in Thailand known for its many golden beaches and two Heroines monuments.
City of Phuket has an area of 12 square kilometres and a population of 75,442 people. As one of the popular natural heritage areas, Phuket was visited by more than 6 million tourists in 2010. Under the management of Ms. SomjaiSuwansupana, Mayor of the City of Phuket, the city’s vision is to drive Phuket towards sustainable healthy city with eight happiness policies namely better education, better environment, better social, better quality of life, better management, better infrastructure, better economy and promote identity of Phuket.
To achieve the city’s vision, all stakeholders are involved. It is essential for the city to have a program for clean air, clean water, clean and green land as well as biodiversity by developing cooperation and network among all stakeholders especially from public and private sectors as well as schoolchildren.
To ensure good air quality of Phuket, the city has permanently implemented an air quality monitoring system. The result showed that all the key parameters like pollution standard index (PSI), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxide of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Particulate Matter (PM-10) were within the ideal standards.
To reduce the emission from automobile sources, roadside inspection is carried out regularly in collaboration with the authorized agencies i.e. Traffic Police, Pollution Control Department and Land Transport Department. Such inspection revealed that 79.27% of the inspected fuel-based vehicles were within the national standard and 86.78% of the inspected diesel vehicles were found to achieve the national standard. Vehicles have also been inspected regularly and maintained in a good condition in order to reduce carbon emission and save energy. The city’s incinerator has a daily automated monitoring system of emission to control the air pollution within the standard limit. In addition, the incinerator is subjected to additional monitoring by external laboratory every 3 months.
The increase in energy efficiency also plays an important role in air quality management. The waste to energy program has been initiated with the production of 1.7 MW of electricity from solid waste incineration, which makes about 2.7 % of total electricity used in the city.
Although Phuket has been known as a clean air city, many programs are seriously implemented in order to maintain good air quality. Awareness raising through public information and public education is essential in changing the mindset of people, which lead to their active participation in carbon emission reduction including domestic, transportation and energy consumption.
Danang is strategically located on the economic and political map of Viet Nam. Danang has a unique natural geographical location and favourable landscape: mountains, rivers, valley, and sea with typical tropical monsoon climate. The biodiversity of animals and plants is plentiful.
In the late 1990s, Danang changed gradually into a civilized and modern city. Danang has identified specific objectives and achieved successes such as the rehabilitation of rivers and beaches, beautification of urban areas, development of new bridges, industrial parks, and re-designing the city towards waterfront. In addition, the city has also implemented social security policy to ensure that everyone receives housing, jobs, and deserving of urban civilized and cultural lifestyle. Danang’s streets are free from beggars. The city has a low number of out-of-school children, low poverty rate, and low crime rate.
Its urbanization has been implemented methodically and scientifically, thanks to the city government’s visionary policy, knowledge, determination and deep-rooted love for its hometown, which has been very popular among and supported by the people of Danang. The city’s achievements have gained recognition within the country and the world.
The project titled “Danang becoming an Environmental City” was announced to solidify Danang’s commitment towards achieving sustainable development. The project looks at the impact of urbanization, industrialization and modernization of the city without losing sight of the sustainability for the future generation. It engages the whole of people of the City, organizations, and anyone who resides and works in Danang to have awareness on the environmental protection and to contribute to Danang becoming an Environmental City.
Recipients of Certificates of Recognition
North Kuching City Hall
Clean Air For Smaller Cities
Towards A Sustainable City – Commission of the City of Kuching North Commission of the City of Kuching North (KNCH) was formed on 1st August 1988. Located in the western tip of Borneo Island, it is the capital of the state of Sarawak which is one of the 14 states that form Malaysia. KNCH has a population of about 192,000 with an area of about 369.48 km2. The vision of KNCH is to be an attractive, cultured, clean and safe garden city whilst its mission is to enhance the quality of life of its community through excellent delivery of services. KNCH is also a member of the Alliance for Healthy City (AFHC) in the Asia Pacific region and has been in the main committee since AFHC’s inception in 2004.
KNCH was conferred the ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award in October 2008 as recognition for its efforts in implementing environmental conservation programs targeted at sustaining the city’s development without jeopardizing the environment. Among these environmental programs are healthy city initiatives, river cleaning, garden city, integrated solid waste management, traffic management, public awareness and public response bureau. KNCH was awarded as Sustainable City – Capital City Category for the second time in a row after receiving the same award in 2008. The award recognised local authorities which had shown ongoing commitments towards the sustainable development of the city. Being sustainable means that the city is efficiently managed to ensure that the development and progress made does not threaten the environment.
A number of green programs and activities presently undertaken by North Kuching City Hall include the following:
- Conserving e old and mature trees;
- Providing open and green spaces for recreational activities;
- Continuous monitoring of air and water quality and regular enforcement on industrial sources;
- Good municipal solid waste management (recycling and effective microbe composting);
- Engaging in a pilot project using solar panel and wind turbines for lighting purposes along the Sarawak waterfront;
KUANTAN MUNICIPAL COUNCIL
Clean Water For Smaller Cities
Kuantan is the capital city of Pahang State, located on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia with the administrative area of 2,453 square km and the total population of 490,000 people. Kuantan has a tropical climate with year-round high humidity and temperature ranging from 27° C to 35° C. The main economic contributors are industries, manufacturing, business, banking, trading, real estates and tourism. Kuantan serves as a regional centre for both multinational companies and local business. In recent years, Kuantan has become one of the fastest growing cities in Malaysia with developments such as shopping complexes, hotels, convention centres, residential facilities, educational and health institutions.
Kuantan has, all the while, preserved the natural forest and created landward green spaces into the city centre. 55% of the total area of Kuantan District is reserved forest which offers varieties of flora and fauna. For the urban landscape, design has been created especially in the city centre by introducing exotic local plants species (genus loci) to elucidate the uniqueness of Kuantan’s image. In relation to eco-system protection, various programmes have been implemented such as tree planting campaigns, 3B (Bring Back the Bird), rehabilitation, waste disposal areas and tin mining water bodies.
Kuantan is a city with fascinating arts and diverse culture of the Malay, Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli. All ethnics are free to practice their worship and celebrate festivities such as Eid-Mubarak, Chinese Lunar New Year, Deepavalietc. Activities such as cultural shows, theatres and art craft demos are often staged and receive very encouraging participation from the communities. These programmes have increased the spirit of the One-Malaysia concept promoted by the Federal Government. The Government together with the related non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs) plays an important part in promoting preservation of buildings and monuments with heritage value. Several buildings in the Kuantan CBD area and Sungai Lembing old tin mining towns have been gazetted as historic buildings.
Kuantan was the first winner for Malaysia Sustainable City in year 2007. Contributing to this success are the results of the holistic environmental approaches through air pollution monitoring system, sustainable waste management, sustainable water management, conservation of the environmentally sensitive areas and environmental awareness programmes. Kuantan has also engaged in partnership with international associations such as DANIDA in waste reduction programmes, UNDP for Sanitary Landfill Management and UNEP for the introduction of Kuantan Biodiversity Index.
With the vision “Together We Shape Kuantan”, the role of the public is reckoned to be the utmost synergistic force to drive Kuantan to the highest level. The public are involved from planning process to decision making exercises. They have been participating in various platforms such as Kuantan Local Agenda 21, Residents Association, non-ggovernmentalorganizations (NGOs) and community based organizations (CBOs). Kuantan has adopted the Local Agenda 21 principles since year 2000 and managed to formulate and implement four action plans which are related to social development, environmental protection, infrastructure and public amenities and economic development. One of the most successful programmes involving the public is ‘The Malaysia Book of Records’ in 2010, which accredited The Largest Mind Map with the theme ‘Kuantan as a Sustainable City’ to Kuantan.
Kuantan has outlined various plans and initiatives to promote healthy living by providing recreational parks and public sports centres. Many activities have been organized comprising competitive sports, traditional sports and mass healthy programmes. Health care awareness campaigns such as ‘Walk-A-Mile’, Curb Obesity, Eat Healthy Food, Blood Donation and the ‘Drug Intervention Centre’ are carried out by numerous organizations.
Green and Clean Land for Smaller Cities; Clean, Green and Conservative City
Phitsanulok Municipality is located in the northern region of Thailand with an area of 18.26 square kilometres and a population of about 78,000 people. Phitsanulok city is a centre of trading and services, transportation as well as a green city rich with beautiful tourism sites.
From 1999 to 2007 Phitsanulok Municipality in cooperation with GIZ on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany launched the project on Solid Waste Management Programme for Phitsanulok. The project led to the Phitsanulok Model which is an integrated waste management that involves public participation. This model has been adapted and utilized by other local authorities across the country.
The public awareness campaigns have been elaborated, in particular through door-to-door approach, public campaigns and outreach activities.
The project teaches the public to sort the solid waste based on the following categories:
- Organic waste (such as from kitchen) that can be used to make compost;
- Reusable waste (such as cans, bottles, etc) that can be used by others and saleable;
- Hazardous waste, which needs to be specifically collected by the city and further processed by a private company;
- Other waste that is collected by garbage trucks.
Waste management that involves public participation is efficient and effective. It has immediate impact with low cost. The existing community structure provides a mechanism that offers potential for community-based activities and in solving their own problem.
The above experience has been developed into a curriculum called “Community-based solid waste management (CBM)”.
For better waste management, based on a cost- benefit analysis, the city has decided to privatize the waste collection and transportation. Integrated waste management was implemented to achieve a zero landfill target.
Waste is delivered to the mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) which helps to reduce pollution and prolong the lifetime of landfill sites. Waste will then be sorted for materials that can be re-used into biomass or fuel material through pyrolysis technology.
Community-based solid waste management helps to reduce the waste production from 1.8 kg per person to 0.96 kg per person and had eventually resulted in a reduction of total waste from 421 tons per day to 75 tons per day. Phitsanulok believes that sustainable city development is not only for the present; but also for the benefits of future generation.
Clean Air For Big Cities
Makassar is the capital city of South Sulawesi Province, previously known as Ujung Pandang, and is located in the southern tip of the Sulawesi Island. Makassar has around 175.77 square kilometres in area which includes 12 small islands. Makassar city has a coastline of approximately 100 miles at the banks of two rivers, Jeneberang and Tallo. Makassar has 14 districts that cover 143 villages.
Rapid economic growth had resulted in problems of environmental management of water and air pollution. The increased number of vehicles each year has caused the degradation of air quality. In addition, manufacturing operations yield greenhouse gas emission that contributes also to the poor air quality in Makassar.
The city Government, particularly the Regional Environmental Agency of Makassar has conducted regular monitoring of emissions from factories and motor vehicles through emissions testing twice a year. The results showed improvement over the years: only 68.62% of gasoline-fuelled vehicles passed the emissions test in 2008; 81.12% in 2009; 85.03% in 2010; and 82.99% in 2011. While 17.31%, of diesel-fuelled vehicles passed the emissions test in 2008; 64.91% in 2009, 81.54% in 2010, and 64.29% in 2011.
There are 15 monitoring points across Makassar and readings are taken twice a year using automated testing monitors. Results obtained are still within the standard air quality threshold.
As a coastal city, Makassar realizes that its air quality also depends on the coastal winds. It also has anticipated regulating the spatial area of Makassar by preparing the land for the Forest City to become the city’s “lungs”.
The various stakeholders such as city government, community, and NGO representatives are actively involved in maintaining and monitoring the air condition in general. It is expected that the above efforts could improve the air quality of Makassar and in turn improve the life of the citizens of Makassar.
Clean Water For Big Cities
Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of Barito and Martapura rivers. As a result, Banjarmasin is sometimes called the “River City”. The administrative area is around 74 square km with a population 686,450 people.
A fairly important deep-water port, PelabuhanTrisakti Banjarmasin is the trade centre of the Barito basin; exports include rubber, pepper, timber, petroleum, coal, gold, and diamonds. Passenger ships and ferries to and from Java also carry their operations here. Main economic sectors in order of their contribution to Banjarmasin’s GDP (2005) are: transportation and communication (26.1%), processing industries (24.9%) and trade and commerce (16.5%). Main processing industries are: plywood, rattan and rubber manufacturing.
Banjarmasin, which lies 0.16 m below sea level, is laced with flood-prone waterways, and many houses are built on stilts over the water. Many of such waterways are also used for travel, using relatively small rowboats (only major rivers are accessible by larger speedboats, tugboats, longboats, and barges).
One local place of interest in Banjarmasin located on the western outskirts of the city is a floating marketplace, where buyers and sellers meet each other using boats. It is a traditional market and is considered one of the city’s landmarks.
Banjarmasin relies mainly on local water public enterprise – Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Bandarmasih – for its water supply. The initial water supply installation was built by the Dutch back in 1937 serving some 300 households with a capacity of 35 liters/second.
Today, PDAM Bandarmasih, being one of the best water companies in Indonesia, produces some 1,100 liters/ second of clean water to serve 120,703 households. Its service coverage is 98% of the total population with 24 hour continuous supply all year round, including during dry season. The water is sourced from Martapura river intake and RiamKanan irrigation canal intake as well as from one deep water intake in Banjarbaru, its neighbouring city.
The development of PDAM Bandarmasih water supply infrastructure has been financed jointly by PDAM Bandarmasih, Banjarmasin Municipal Government, South Kalimantan Provincial Government, and Central government.
Banjarmasin is susceptible to water borne diseases due to high e-coli content of the river water. Many households do not have proper sanitation facilities. Realising these, Banjarmasin Municipal Government has been trying hard to solve the problems. One of the efforts was the establishment of local waste water treatment public enterprise – named Perusahaan Daerah Pengolahan Air Limbah or PD PAL. PD PAL was enacted by the Mayor’s decree in 2006.
The objective of the company is to increase the degree of public health and the quality of city environment. PD PAL is currently operating four waste water treatment plants in differing areas. The total capacity is 5,100 m3/ day serving some 1,096 households. Ever since the establishment of PD PAL and the relatively high quality and reliability of water supply, the occurrence of water borne diseases has been significantly reduced.
Green And Clean Land For Big Cities
Palembang is the capital city of South Sumatra Province in Indonesia. It is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia with a rich history as the capital of the maritime empire. Located on the Musi River bank on the east coast of southern Sumatra Island, it has an area of 400.61 square kilometres and is divided into 16 districts and 107 sub- districts. The population of Palembang is about 1.5 million people.
Musi River is the main vein of Palembang’s everyday life facilitating the transportation and economic sector. Along the Musi River lies floating houses, PT PUSRI (fertilizer factory), PT PertaminaPersero (oil company), 16 Ilir Market, and other industries (such as crumb rubber).
To achieve Palembang City’s vision as an eco city with the motto, “clean, green and blue Palembang”, the Palembang City Government, in collaboration with other stakeholders and the public, has implemented environmental management programs which include Urban Area Management; Management of Water Resources, Air, Land; and Mitigation and Adaptation for Climate Change.
Programs in Urban Area Management include Environment Friendly Village, Eco School, Eco Office, Eco Market, City Tree-Planting. Environment Friendly Village is a village management program which focuses on 12 criteria of environment standard that are self-managed. These criteria are:
- Managed by the village people;
- Domestic Solid Waste Sorting (organic and inorganic);
- Solid Waste Management (composting, 3R, and Garbage Bank);
- Clean Water Supply;
- Good Sanitation;
- Tree Planting;
- Solid Waste Transfer Deposits (TPS);
- Infiltration Well (Biopori);
- Herb Garden; and
- Renewable Energy.
Eco School, Eco Office and Eco Market focus on solid waste management especially on composting.
Programs in water resources management include Prokasih (Clean River), Water Quality Monitoring, Wastewater Management (Industrial and Domestic).
Programs in air quality protection include ambient air quality monitoring, emission monitoring (industrial & transportation), Eco Transportation, Car Free Day, and utilizing methane gas from domestic waste.
Programs in land management include solid waste management such as composting, 3R, garbage sorting and garbage bank.
Palembang City Government has targeted on reducing solid waste production by about 7% of total solid waste that would be sent to landfill.
Private sector also has a role in environmental management, for example:
- PT Indofood (noodle company) contributed to the seed fund for garbage bank in 15 schools in Palembang City.
- PT PertaminaPersero (national oil company) contributed in establishing composting centres involving communities.
- Other companies such as PT DexaMedica, Gapkindo,
- PT Bank Sumsel Babel, Charitas Hospital contributed in providing motorized garbage collectors.