- Tangerang – Indonesia (Clean Air for Big Cities)
- Da Lat City – Viet Nam (Clean Air for Small Cities)
- Phnom Penh – Cambodia (Clean Water for Big Cities)
- Nakhon Sawan City – Thailand (Clean Water for Small Cities)
- Davao City – Philippines (Clean Land for Big Cities)
- Roi-et – Thailand (Clean Land for Small Cities)
Tangerang – Indonesia (Clean Air for Big Cities)
Geographically, Tangerang City is located at 106O 36’ – 106O42’ East and 6O6’ – 6O13’ South. Tangerang City has an area of 184.24 km2 (including Soekarno-Hatta Airport area of 19.69 km2). The population of Tangerang City in 2013 is 1,918,556. The Government of Tangerang City has strong commitment to manage the environment. It is indicated by an effort to invite public participation in environmental management and to achieve Adipura Kencana Award in 2013.
- Ambient Air Quality
- Emissions from Vehicle
- Emissions from Industries
- Alternative Fuels Used
Air quality condition data are obtained from manual and automatic monitoring (3 air quality stations). Based on manual monitoring, several parameters have exceeded the national standard (CO, PM10, and TSP). During 2013, 348 days of air quality monitoring data from Sudirman Station were recorded. Of 348 days, 55 days were in unhealthy condition (PSI>100). The number of days in a year with CO levels exceeding the USEPA standard is 43 days,with SO2 levels exceeding the USEPA standard 35 days, withNO2 levels exceeding the USEPA standard 0 day, and with PM10 exceeding the USEPA standard 28 days.
Since 2009, Tangerang City Government in collaboration with Banten Province Government and Ministry of Environment have conducted vehicle gas emissions testing. The percentage of gasoline fueled-vehicles that passed the test is 90.5% and percentage of diesel fueled-vehicles that passed the test is 58%.
Emissions from industrial chimneys are regularly measured by ECB to evaluate industrial compliment. In 2013, ECB measured 8 companies, which all fulfill the requirement of national standard.
Alternative fuels were developed by using organic waste to produce biogas. The development of alternative fuels is in Rawa Kucing Landfill and some housing areas. of methane (biogas) from6000 m3 of waste has been converted into 50 KVA of electricity per month. The use of other alternative fuels are in the installation of solar cells and LED lights for 24 road lamps. Solar cell technology is also implemented into traffic light that has reduced the cost in the amount of IDR 9.75 million (USD 820) per month.
Based on Air Pollution Load Capacity (ECB, 2010), the most pollution is generated from transportation sector. This condition occurs due to high use of private vehicles compared to the use of mass transit transportation. Future development of the transport sector includes the development of public mass transportation that is reliable, safe, comfortable, and intermodal integration.
The Government of Tangerang City has strong commitment to reduce air pollution. Therefore, in year 2010, 2012 and 2013 Tangerang City was awarded for the cleanest air (Blue Sky Award). To achieve better air quality, the Government of Tangerang City has established a policy, stated in Regional Regulation number 3/2013, regarding Air Pollution Control. All sectors (transportation, industries, housing, and non-institutional) have been regulated. The regulation also regulates about greenhouse gasses (GHG) reduction (adaptation and mitigation action policy) to support the national target of 26% GHG reduction.
Da Lat City – Viet Nam (Clean Air for Big Cities)
Da Lat city is the center of politics, culture and service. It is not only a hub for economic exchange in urban system in Viet Nam, a center of tourism, relaxation in the area, country, region and the world, but also a place of training and scientific research. Da Lat has natural square around 394.38 km2 including 12 wards and 4 communes. Up to 2012, the Da Lat population is 215,368.
Da Lat enjoys the characteristics of tropical monsoon climate and climate of highlands with low and balanced temperature. The average temperature per year is around 18-20oC, the average rainfall reaches 1800 – 1850mm each year, relative humidity in months is 85% and the average wind speed is 2,6 – 3,5 m/s. Thanks to cool climate, Da Lat is a place for the production of vegetable, flower, speciality trees and plants of subtropical region with high value in the country.
The average elevation of Da Lat city is 1,500m above sea level with complex terrain on huge plateau alternated with highmountain, plain and valley. These characteristics created conversion of natural factors such as climate, vegetation, soil and established natural beauties as well.
There are big lakes around this city. They provide water for drinking, life, agriculture and also are landscape lakes keeping eco-environment within natural frame. The city consists of famous and beautiful landscapes (lakes, streams, waterfalls, mountains) along with many diversified architecture buildings of Europe and Asia. Many historical and cultural sites are famous in the country and international (2 cultural heritages were recognized by UNESCO, 10 heritages at national level, 4 heritages at provincial level showing special and diversified culture of highland city in Viet Nam.
Regarding transportation, 4 national roads, provincial routes going through and Lien Khuong airport connect Da Lat to major cities of Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh, Da Nang, Vinh. It is favorable condition for the Da Lat tourism development. The number of tourists visiting this city increased from 12 to 15 %, in 2013. In which Da Lat welcomed 3,77 billion turns of tourists.
Being the homeland to several ethnic minority groups, the origins living on highlands, mainly based on agriculture created different style for Da Lat people with gentle, polite, and friendly manner. Besides, the ethnic minority groups have traditional unique culture with special folk color.
On eco-environment, currently, the quality water in lakes, rivers and streams of city had signal of pollution. The main reason is poor management of domestic sewage and agricultural activities. However, the underground water resource is quite stable, no signal of pollution. Air quality around production and population areas is quite good. Some indexes of air pollution such as CO, SO2, NO2 are lower than standard. With more than 24.350 ha of special-use forest and landscape protection forest, Da Lat has feature of “City in the forest and forest in the city”. Natural characteristics help Da Lat form specific and diversified landscape with different types of forest, and unique animal and plant system of more than 3,000 types of plants and abundance of animals.
With the preferential condition given by nature, Da Lat has become a famous destination for tourism, relaxation of Viet Nam. So Da Lat city always pays attention to socio-economic development in accordance with sustainable environment. To reach the above task, the Da Lat administration had made the long-term policy of environmental protection and promoted capacity to collect domestic waste along with building a centralized waste treatment factory for the city, studied to invest to build a harmful emission treatment factory, expanded the network for collection and treatment of domestic waste, controlled pollution caused by production, business and service bases and encouraged them apply low-waste technology, fostered environmental survey, maintained and increased the percentage of forest cover, green cover for urban, propagated, trained and improved responsibility for environmental protection in people and tourists.
After five years of being urban city type I of province, Da Lat administration and people have made efforts in the work of environmental protection. Environmental quality of the city has been improved significantly. Environmental protection improved in quality and quantity.
All forest plantation and tree growing projects and programs in the city have achieved good results, covering density of forest reached 61,74%, whichhelps Da Lat make “Forest in the city and city in the forest” possible with the form of temperate zone city in tropical region. In general, Da Lat is a huge park with pine tree covering for the pure environment.
In 2005, Da Lat put the domestic sewage treatment factory into operation with a capacity of 7.400 m3/day and night serving for central of city, contributed to improving pollution of water resource because of domestic sewage. Currently, a project to expand waste collecting networks is being implemented. Domestic sewage treatment reaches 12.000 m3/day and night in general capacity and intending to build a centralized domestic sewage treatment factory with capacity of 200 tons/day and put into operation in 2014 thus meeting with demand of treatment for domestic rubbish arisen in the whole city contributing to solving pressing problem for environment of the local.
Every year, the city always celebrates the activities in response to the ceremonies of environment. Efforts to promote environmental awareness have been implemented regularly, especially by introducing environmental education to all schools. This results in the improvement of environmental awareness. Some movements on environment protection such as clearing roads in villages, communes, population areas, markets, parking stations, opening up drains, waste collection, killing of mosquitoes and mosquito larva and other harmful insects and other actifvities to create a clear, clean and green environment in main streets, markets, working places are further enhanced and responded by people and tourists.
Phnom Penh – Cambodia (Clean Water for Big Cities)
Phnom Penh, the capital city of the Kingdom of Cambodia, is one of the oldest capital cities in the region; it is now is 580 years old. Phnom Penh capital is located on the Mekong River, which is a large river in Asia deriving from the Tibet plateau of China with a length of 4,200 kilometers crossing Yunnan province, China and Laos, which divided as Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam and flowing into the South China Sea through Cambodia from north to south and crossing the geographical area of Phnom Penh capital, which forms a special freshwater ecology system for the city. Moreover, Phnom Penh Capital is located in the middle of the country, which is a tributary of the four-face river between the upper Mekong River, the lower Mekong River, Tonle Bassac River and Tonle Sap River. Phnom Penh therefore plays an important role as a gathering point for the political, economic, business, social affairs, heritage, tourism, cultural and diplomatic sectors of the country.
After the Royal Government cut 20 sangkats from Kandal province to fall within the control of Phnom Penh in 2010, Phnom Penh’s land area has now increased to 678,47 km2, which is divided into nine khans with 96 sangkats. It has 1.5 million people permanently residents and around 500,000 people who enter [the city] every day as transient people, and with people increasing by 3.2% per year (an increase of 100,000 families per year), it could increase to four million people in 2020.
The restoration of Phnom Penh started to develop from January 01, 1979 and has continued until present. During the last ten years, Phnom Penh has experienced rapid growth. The quick growth in the population as well as in economic and social affairs since 2000 has led Phnom Penh to face many new challenges such as: traffic jams, environmental pollution, solid and liquid waste management, creation of new and large construction, expansion of the city in the region outside the khans in the city center and disorderliness of the growth of residential areas in the outskirts.
In order to address the above challenges based on the Rectangular Strategy of the Royal Government and the fundamental capital development strategy as well as with the sponsorship, support and assistance from countries and development partners since 2005, Phnom Penh Capital Hall has prepared a master strategy project plan to orient development until 2020 which is being carried out step by step. Moreover, as Phnom Penh Capital is on the axis of two main cities in Asia (Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh cities), Phnom Penh has been developed in other manners in accordance with its specific circumstances, especially the strategy related to the environment which will enable Phnom Penh to become a modern city and to attract investors as other large cities do. In addition, the city’s development will be connected to cities in the surrounding provinces and to the development of the whole country, because Phnom Penh is currently a service center for over six million people within a distance of 100 kilometers surrounding and is to be the service supplier for over twelve million people in the next 10 years.
The development of Phnom Penh is to ensure the sustainable development of economy and infrastructure and to promote the good quality of life and living environment of people in Phnom Penh. Therefore, the main development goals include:
- Development has connected this city to water especially, Chaktomuk (the four-face) River has been planned to be preserved by linkages with the development of modern public construction, areas of tall building construction along the river bank, traffic from tourist passenger boats, parks and other entertainment activities along the river bank, etc.
- The areas which are determined to have tall buildings include: Chroy Changvar, Koh Pich, Chbar Ampov, Paung Peay Lake and other areas which all can attract investment and provide efficiency in terms of both the economic and environmental sectors. Together with this, some main rivers of the city have been considered for the use of people such as through the creation of parks and the planting of surrounding trees
- The development of satellite cities with mixed activities is a sustainable development which helps reduce the expenses on means of transportation, the establishment of green space between each satellite city, helping to absorb the growth of people and providing employment in the future.
The Chaktomuk location (four-face) is the location of the origin of Phnom Penh and the area where it shows the image of the modern era of the city as well as the value of Khmer heritage and culture to international visitors. Therefore, connecting the preservation to the development of public construction in modern and beautiful styles in Phnom Penh is necessary. It enables us to see Wat Phnom, the Royal Palace, ancient cities on the west bank, and areas of tall commercial building construction and the end east cape of Arey Khsat, which has a natural green view and a good environment.
In addition, Phnom Penh Capital Hall has prepared major infrastructure system in order to support the above development as follows:
- Phnom Penh International Airport, Phnom Penh Port and many dry ports on the outskirts;
- The road system, which is a means of transportation necessary for city and economic development;
- Phnom Penh city integration with other cities in ASEAN countries is very important, and the creation of an ASEAN train station is also essential for Phnom Penh. Khans in the middle of the city have road systems, which have been prepared to be built, repaired and clearly determined for public transportation with proper car parks. For khans outside the city, we have thought of an important main road system for development in the future such as the preparation of a wide road to facilitate transportation, the link from one pole to another pole and a green space along the road. Those roads include: an ASEAN road, roads surrounding major cities, inter-regional roads, connecting one pole to another pole, roads along sangkats – khans as well as other avenues.
- The drainage system for Phnom Penh is divided into two main regions comprising the region in the north, which contains a main canal system and machine pumping water to be discharged to the Boeung Kak rice in the north to purify water naturally and the region in the south, which contains a main canal system and the south water pump machine discharging water to Boeung Cheung Ek. This has been reserved for 550 hectares to purify water naturally before discharged it into the river. In contrast, for the contaminated water in the city, we have changed its direction so it does not flow into the river by conducting a study and making a reservoir using a Pseudo Septic system to discharge water into the large river through contaminated-water naturally purifying reservoir in advance.
- As for the cleaning of solid wastes, Phnom Penh Capital Hall has created two new additional sites; one for keeping the waste and the other one for burning clinical waste on the outskirts as well. Moreover, even though for a cremation, the Phnom Penh Capital Hall has also created places for cremation in wats on the outskirts which are twenty kilometers away from the downtown. In order to enhance the management of solid waste, Phnom Penh Capital Hall has set out some instruction plans for implementation as follows:
- Plan of fines for disorderly throwing of rubbish in public;
- of waste separation and reduction of the use of plastic bags in the markets;
- Creation of separate management and storing of clinical waste and flash light battery waste;
- Creation of a new waste disposal site and creation of mechanism for good management of the process;
- Publicly education and dissemination of awareness of the instruction plan of Phnom Penh Capital Hall in waste management to people in order for them to be aware of it and to participate in implementing it;
- Creation of mechanism for implementing the fine and waste separation in the locality and in the markets.
- Expansion of green space along river banks, parks and planting trees along roads
- Reduction of air pollution through old vehicle inspection and importing gasoline containing the least lead.
- The Phnom Penh Capital has been preparing to have two types of public construction, which are public construction for of the entire Phnom Penh Capital such as a concert hall, exhibition hall, museum, stadium and huge national universities etc., whereas, the public construction in khans include health centers, schools, markets, etc.
- The clean water service has covered almost all surface areas of the entire city and all the people receive the clean water service. In particular, this clean water is also supplied to (90%) of the new developing areas in the outskirts. However, the amount of used water also forms environmental pollution should there be no good organization and management, and the Phnom Penh Capital Hall has therefore instructed people to minimize the use of water.
- Electric power is still expensive and polluted (oil waste, smoke from electricity producing machines, cables connecting from abroad); therefore, we will consider the use of electricity generated by solar power, natural gas, and encouraging the saving of this energy such as [through] the promotion of constructing energy-efficient buildings etc.
- In addition, Phnom Penh Capital Hall still pays attention to people in poor communities as well. The development principle runs smoothly and we have prepared development with three methods comprising development by land sharing, development in upgrading places and resettlement. The title deeds for over 10,000 land plots and clean water have been provided in cooperation with civil societies and NGOs as well as [through] the creation of the Urban Poverty Deduction Fund (UPDF), which is able to provide small loans to help reduce difficulties in the lives of poor people. As a result, poor families have been reduced to only 0.8% until the present time.
Due to these achievements and developments, the Phnom Penh Capital Hall has received the following awards:
- Received an award for “Clean Water Supply, Water for All” from ADB in Manila, the Philippines, in 2004;
- Received a world award for “Leadership” in London, UK, in 2005;
- Received an award for “Asia–Pacific City Environment” in Melbourne, Australia, in 2006;
- Received a world award as a leader in “Mechanisms for on-site Environmental Improvement” in London, UK, in 2007;
- Received an award for the “First ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City” in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2008;
- Received an award for the “Second ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City” in Bali, Indonesia, in 2011.
The abovementioned results are all from the efforts with good will of State’s institutions, participation from private institutions, civil society (NGOs) and people in the whole Phnom Penh capital. However, what is to be further strengthened are the legal system and strengthening of State’s institutions in order to implement activities to provide public services to people and coordination with the private sector in order to attract them to take part in further city investment and development.
Phnom Penh Capital is in an essential circumstance of its history. Due to the delay in development, this has made Phnom Penh Capital able to learn from the experiences and mistakes which occurred in neighboring countries in terms of city development. At the present time, Phnom Penh Capital will be able to become a large and modern city in Asia due to its political will and development strategy. If we fail to think and implement the strategy globally, difficulties in the economic, social and environmental sectors will arise.
The principal plan and plan defining new strategy of Phnom Penh Capital Hall is being implemented by the authorities and people of all levels with the aim of making Phnom Penh Capital become a modern city of the 21st century with an active economy, good environment and prosperous society together with balanced development, organization of the city with proper rules and laws with environmental sustainability and great national pride.
In conclusion, factors which lead Phnom Penh Capital to success as mentioned above, are based on:
- Complying with political platform and development strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia;
- Preparing principal plan and development plan of Phnom Penh Capital;
- Ensuring security, safety and confidence for citizens;
- Mainstreaming awareness to the public via all forms of educational activities along with the strengthening of proper law enforcement and with specific implementation plan;
- Maintaining good cooperation between the State and Public institutions and with the participation from the citizens;
- Improving provision of public services to citizens as well as affording the private sector every possibility to take part in development of Phnom Penh Capital.
In short, on the basis of the principal plan and the development plan which are being implemented by the local authorities and the citizens together with implementation of the National Green Growth Road Map, Phnom Penh Capital will truly become a city of the 21st century with modernity, economic growth, good environment and great national pride.
More detail information about the Phnom Penh City and Phnom Penh Capital Hall can be obtained from web sites: www.phnompenh.gov.kh